Power Magazine has recently featured an article on demand response programs and virtual power plants (VPPs). An Enel X program in California is a prime example of the services a VPP can provide. The project, which serves a variety of customers, is what Enel X calls “a roughly 70 MW highly distributed” VPP. The VPP is active in the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale day-ahead and real-time markets, “dynamically managing charging loads to balance grid demand, reduce wholesale energy costs, and mitigate the intermittency of renewables.”
Read more about Enel X and VVPs here.